Materials Testing

What is Materials Testing?

Material testing is for the spring manufacturer or end-user to have confidence that the material they receive is as expected for that grade. The tests we perform are based on the requirements of national and international standards for spring material.

A wide range of techniques and tests are required in these standards, and we have the capabilities and expertise to perform them all. Examples of the tests stipulated in these standards are summarised below.

Explore Our Material Testing Services

Metallographic Examination

Our metallographic examination service for wire quality ensures comprehensive analysis, including microstructure check, surface defect measurement, coating thickness assessment, and decarburization (decarb) evaluation. This ensures the wire you have bought meets the requirements of its certification and is fit for purpose.

Torsion Testing

This test involves using specialist equipment to uniformly grip a specified length of wire at either end, keeping the wire as straight as possible. The wire will then be rotated at one end while counting the number of turns before failure, determining the wire’s ductility during twisting. This is important because it is typically stipulated in the wire standard and indicates its ductility under a torsional load. Both compression and extension springs apply a torsional load to the wire during operation.

Tensile Testing

This test applies a tensile load to the material (usually wire) until it fractures. The results can then be used to calculate the material’s ultimate tensile strength (UTS or Rm). Both are typically specified in spring wire standards and are required for a wire to meet the specification. This test can also be used to determine Young’s modulus and yield strength if needed.

Wrapping Test

This test wraps a wire around a mandrel a specific number of times to form a tightly wound helix. The number of turns required and the diameter of the mandrel is stipulated in the wire standard. During this test, the wire must not fracture, and the surface of the wire must remain free from cracks. This determines the coilability and elasticity of the wire and can be used to test the adhesion of the zinc coating on galvanised wire.

Bend Test

This test involves bending a wire, which can move freely, over a mandrel of specified diameter, through a specified angle at ambient temperature. Like the wrapping test, this should result in an unbroken and unblemished wire and tests the ductility and toughness of the wire.

Vicker’s Hardness Testing

This test uses a specified force to indent a polished sample with a pyramid-shaped diamond. The indent left on the surface of the sample is then measured and converted into a hardness. The result is typically used as a measure of the strength of the material when the size of the material is too large to be widely tested using a tensile teste